Discussion on the structural adjustment of China's

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Discussion on the structural adjustment of China's paper industry

key points: through the analysis of the current situation of China's paper industry, the main structural contradictions of the industry, the prediction of the market prospect of the paper industry and the analysis of the industrial development trend, this paper ponders the structural adjustment of the paper industry, and puts forward some main measures and policy suggestions on structural adjustment

key words: paper industry; Structural adjustment; Discussion; Industry status; Market prospect forecast; Industrial development trend; Raw material structure; Product structure; Enterprise scale structure; Pollution control; Measures and policy suggestions

the author introduces: Cao Pufang, born in March, 1945, from Beijing. From 1963 to 1968, he studied pulp and paper at Beijing Institute of light industry. Since the end of 1968, he has been engaged in scientific research, production, technology, management and industry development planning of pulp and paper for more than 30 years. He has successively served as deputy director of Shandong Tai'an paper mill, executive director and Deputy Secretary General of the Second Council of China Paper Association, director of the third and fourth council, deputy director of the Ministry of light industry of the people's Republic of China, deputy director and director of the paper industry Office of China Light Industry Association, and Deputy Secretary General of China Paper Association. He is currently the executive vice president and senior engineer of the Second Council of China Paper Association. In 1978, Shandong branch "gold group" won the advanced individual award at the business science and technology conference all over the world. In 1979, it won the title of national "March 8th" red flag bearer and Shandong Province "March 8th" red flag bearer pacesetter. For many years, he has published papers or such protection in domestic and foreign paper publications and relevant conferences. On average, he has protected more than 30 articles at least twice a month

note: This article is a speech at the non wood pulping and papermaking symposium held in Beijing in April, 1999

after the reform and opening up, China's paper industry has made great progress and gradually moved towards a market economy. With the further expansion of opening to the outside world and the internationalization of the domestic market, China's paper industry has been involved in the fierce competition with the international paper industry. Facing the new change and development situation, the existing structural contradictions are prominent, which can no longer meet the rapid growth of paper consumption demand

How can China's paper industry develop sustainably is a very important issue of common concern to relevant government departments and the paper industry. It is imperative to adjust the existing structure and solve the existing problems. Among them, the structural adjustment of non wood pulp papermaking is an important part of the structural adjustment of China's papermaking industry, which can not be ignored

1 current situation of the industry

the paper industry is one of the important industries of the national economy. More than 80% of its total products are means of production, and less than 20% are used for people's daily consumption. Generally speaking, the paper industry is the basic raw material industry of the national economy. The consumption level of paper and paperboard has become one of the important symbols of a country's modernization and civilization. In 1997, there were 5873 paper-making enterprises with independent accounting in light industrial townships and above; 1.18 million employees; The output of machine-made paper and paperboard in China is 27.33 million tons, ranking third in the world; The economic benefit ranks 36th among the top 100 industries in China; However, such testing methods have inherent shortcomings. The consumption of paper and paperboard is 32.58 million tons, ranking second in the world. However, the per capita consumption of paper products is about 25kg, far lower than the world's per capita consumption of 55kg

2 Analysis of the main structural contradictions in the industry

since the reform and opening up, China's paper industry has made great progress. With the transformation of China's planned economy system to a market economy system and the changes in the domestic and foreign market environment, the paper consumption market has also undergone fundamental changes, from the past seller's market to the buyer's market. Facing the internationalization of the domestic paper market and the increasingly fierce market competition, the structural contradictions in China's paper industry are becoming increasingly prominent. In addition to the problems existing in the system, mechanism, management level and technical equipment level, its structural contradictions are mainly manifested in the coexistence of excess production capacity of medium and low-end products and insufficient effective supply of high-end products, serious structural imbalances, and it is difficult to meet the rapid growth of paper market demand. This structural problem of insufficient total supply is manifested in the insufficient supply of high-grade paper products on the one hand, and a large number of medium and low-grade products are overstocked and overproduced on the other hand. In 1997, China imported 5.52 million tons of paper and paperboard. Due to the continuous growth of domestic market demand, the growth of paper and paperboard consumption is greater than that of production. Consumption in 1996 increased by 15.7% over 1995, and consumption in 1997 increased by 6.3% over 1996, while production in the same period increased by 9.9% and 3.6% respectively over the previous year. Imported products increased, and the self-sufficiency rate of domestic paper showed a downward trend. Imported paper and paperboard in 1997 increased by 82% over 1995 and 23% over 1996, ensuring high efficiency, low noise and stable transmission of the transmission system, resulting in a decrease in the self-sufficiency rate of domestic products from 89% in 1995 to 84% in 1997

at present, the structure of China's pulp and paper industry has the prominent problems of small proportion of wood pulp, small enterprise scale, small capacity of medium and high-grade paper, and large environmental pollution

2.1 unreasonable structure of papermaking raw materials

China's papermaking raw materials are mainly non wood fibers, and the proportion of wood pulp is very small. At present, there are less than 200 paper-making enterprises in China that use wood, reed (awn stalk), bamboo, bagasse and other fibers as raw materials. The vast majority of paper-making enterprises use wheat straw, imported commodity pulp and waste paper as their main raw materials. Among the total annual pulp consumption, the proportion of wood pulp is 13%, the proportion of non wood pulp is about 47% (of which straw pulp is 37%), and the proportion of waste pulp is 40%. This raw material structure with too low proportion of wood pulp is obviously unreasonable compared with the international modern paper industry using more than 90% wood pulp for papermaking. The unreasonable structure of raw materials is one of the fundamental problems restricting the development of China's paper industry in the future

2.2 unreasonable scale structure of enterprises

generally speaking, China's paper industry has poor scale efficiency and weak competitiveness due to its small scale and low production concentration. In 1997, there were 1180 paper-making enterprises with an annual production capacity of more than 10000 tons, with an output of 18.58 million tons, accounting for 68% of the total output. Among them, there were more than 130 paper-making enterprises with an annual production capacity of more than 30000 tons, with an output of 6million tons, accounting for 22% of the total output. Only 3 paper-making enterprises have a middle-aged production capacity of more than 200000 tons, and 30 have an annual production capacity of more than 100000 tons. The average annual output of China's existing paper-making enterprises is 5975 tons, which is far from the average scale of the world's paper mills of about 40000 tons. This kind of enterprise structure with large quantity and small production scale affects the development of China's paper industry towards modernization and economies of scale

2.3 unreasonable product structure

at present, there are few varieties of paper and paperboard products in China, and the technical content is relatively low. Its product structure is dominated by medium and low-grade products, accounting for about 70%, low-grade product paper accounts for 50%, and medium-grade products account for 20%. The proportion of high-end and high-quality products is relatively small, accounting for about 30%. There are only more than 600 kinds of paper products in China, 50% of which are low-grade products, which is far from the level of more than 1000 kinds of medium and high-grade products in paper developed countries. With the technological progress of relevant industries and the upgrading of products, this product structure of paper and paperboard can no longer adapt to the changes and development of the paper consumption market, which intensifies the dependence on imported paper and paperboard. In recent years, the import volume of high-grade paper and paperboard with wood fiber as raw material has increased year by year. The import volume of four categories of products, including Kraft pickup and kraft liner board, high-strength corrugated base paper, coated white board and coated printing paper (mainly coated paper), accounts for 60% - 70% of the total import volume

2.4 pulping and papermaking wastewater pollution is serious

the current raw material structure, scale structure and technical equipment level determine that the wastewater pollution of China's paper industry is relatively serious. According to the 1997 environmental protection statistical bulletin, 3815 paper and paper products production enterprises at and above the county level discharged 2.746 billion tons of wastewater, accounting for 11% of the total industrial emissions of the country; Among them, the standard emission is 400 million tons, accounting for only 15% of the total emission of papermaking; The chemical oxygen consumption in the discharged wastewater is 4.07 million tons, accounting for about 47% of the total industrial discharge in China. According to the national environmental protection requirements, paper enterprises should meet the discharge standards in 2000, and their task of pollution control

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